domingo, 13 de febrero de 2011

Volleyball rules

VOLLEYBALL

GAME CHARACTERISTICS:

Volleyball is a sport played by two teams on a playing court divided by a net.
The Object of the game is to send the ball over the net in order to ground it on the opponent’s court, and to prevent the same effort by the opponent.
The team has three hits for returning the ball (in addition to the block contact).
The ball is put in play with a service.
The rally continues until the ball is grounded on the playing court, goes “out” or a team fails to return it properly.
In Volleyball, the team winning a rally scores a point (Rally point system).
When the receiving team wins a rally, it gains a point and the right to serve, and its players rotate one position clockwise.

PLAYING AREA

The playing court is a rectangle measuring 18x9m surrounded by a free zone which is a minimum of 3 m wide on all sides.
On each court, an attack line, whose rear edge is drawn 3 m back from the axis of the centre line, marks the front zone.







HEIGHT OF THE NET

Placed vertically over the centre line there is a net whose top is set at the height of 2.43 for men and 2.24 for women.




TEAM COMPOSITION

A team may consist of a maximum of 12 players, one coach, one assistant coach, one trainer and one medical doctor.

TO SCORE A POINT

a) Point:
A team scores a point:
-by successfully grounding the ball on the opponents court
-when the opponent’s team commit a fault
b) Fault:
A team commits a fault by making a playing action contrary to the rules.
If two or more faults are committed successively, only the first one is counted. If two or more faults are committed by opponents simultaneously, a DOUBLE FAULT is called and the rally is replayed.
c) Consequences of winning a rally:
If the serving team wins a rally, it scores a point a continues to serve;
If the receiving team wins a rally, it scores a point and it must serve next.


TO WIN A SET

A set (except the deciding 5th set) is won by the team which first scores 25 points with a minimum lead of two points. In the case of a 24-24 tie, play is continued until a two point lead is achieved (24-26; 27-25;…)

TO WIN THE MATCH

The match is won by the team that wins three sets.
In the case of a 2-2 tie, the deciding set (the 5th) is played to 15 points with a minimum lead of two points.

POSITIONS
The positions of the players are numbered as follows:
-The three players along the net are front- row players and occupy positions 4(front-left), 3(front-centre), 2(front-right).
-The other three are back-row players occupying position 5(back-left), 6(back centre) and 1(back-right).
*Relative positions between players:
Each back-row player must be positioned further back from the centre line than the corresponding front-row player.
The front-row players and the back-row players, respectively, must be positioned laterally in the order indicated in the rotation.

POSITIONAL FAULT
The team commits a positional fault, if any player is not in his/her correct position at the moment the ball is hit by the server.
If the server commits a serving fault at the moment of the serving hit, the server’s fault is counted before a positional fault. But, if the service becomes faulty after the service hit, it is the positional fault that will be counted.
A positional fault leads to the following consequences:

The team is sanctioned with loss of rally;
Player’s positions are rectified

ROTATIONAL FAULT

A rotational fault is committed when the SERVICE is not made according to the rotational order. It leads to the following consequences:
- The team is sanctioned with a loss of rally;
- The players’ rotational order is rectified
Additionally, the scorer should determine the exact moment when the fault was committed and all the points scored by the team at fault must be cancelled.
The opponent’s points remain valid.

TEAM HITS

The team is entitled to a maximum of three hits (in addition to blocking) for returning the ball. If more are used, the team commits the fault of: “FOUR HITS”.

CONSECUTIVE CONTACTS

A player may not hit the ball two times consecutively except when blocking.

FAULTS IN PLAYING THE BALL

FOUR HITS: A team hits the ball four times before returning it.
ASSISTED HIT: A player takes support from a team-mate or any structure/object in order to reach the ball within the playing area.
CATCH: The ball is caught and/or thrown; it does not rebound from the hit.
DOUBLE CONTACT: A player hits the ball twice in succession or the ball contacts various parts of his/her body in succession.

BALL TOUCHING THE NET

While crossing the net, the ball may touch it, including when serving.

SERVICE

The service is the act of putting the ball into play, by the back right player, placed inn the service zone.
FIRST SERVICE IN A SET

The first service of the first set, as well as that of the deciding set (the 5th) is executed by the team determined by the toss.
The other sets will be started with the service of the team that did not serve first in the previous set.

SERVICE ORDER

The players must follow the service order recorded on the line-up sheet.
After the first service in a set, the payer to serve is determined as follows:
When the serving team wins the rally, the player who served before, serves again.
When the receiving team wins the rally, it gains the right to serve and rotates before serving. The player who moves from the front right position to the back-right position will serve.

EXECUTATION OF THE SERVICE

The serve shall be hit with one hand or any part of the arm after being tossed or released from the hand(s)
Only one toss or release of the ball is allowed. Dribbling or moving the ball in the hands is permitted.
At the moment of the service hit or take-off for a jump service, the server must not touch the court (the end line included).
After the hit, he or she may step or land outside the service zone, or inside the court.
The server must hit the ball within 8 seconds after the first referee whistles for service.
A service executed before the referee’s whistle is cancelled and repeated.

FAULTS MADE DURING THE SERVING

The following faults lead to a change of service even if the opponent is out of position.
The server:
-Violates the service order
-does not execute the service properly
Faults after the service hit:
After the ball has been correctly hit, the service becomes a fault if the ball:
-touches a player of the serving team or fails to cross the vertical plane of the net
-goes out
-passes over a screen

BLOCK AND TEAM HITS

A block contact is not counted as a team hit. Consequently, after a block contact, a team is entitled to three hits to return the ball.
The first hit after the block may be executed by any player, including the one who has touched the ball during the block.

LINKS:
Presentación de VOLEIBOL
VÍDEOS
How to play volleyball



Techniques


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